Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to treat patients with severe, life-threatening conditions of the heart and lungs. ECMO uses a pump to replace the function of the heart and an oxygenator to perform the work of the lungs. The oxygenator both delivers oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide from the blood. ECMO provides short-term support, allowing the heart and lungs time to recover from damage or injury. The ECMO machine is similar to the heart-lung bypass machine used in open heart surgery. Large tubes called cannulas are placed in the legs, neck, or chest and are connected to the ECMO machine. Venous blood, low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide, is pumped into the ECMO unit where it is oxygenized, and carbon
Humans are bitten by other humans and animals, especially dogs, quite often. Dog bites are estimated to cause tens of millions of injuries around the world every year. Children are at greater risk of dog bites, especially to the head and/or neck. Head and neck bites in children can cause more severe injury and death. Infection is the most important complication of bite wounds, but dog bite wounds and human bite wounds are treated differently.
Human bites are considered more serious and more
Down syndrome, also called Down’s syndrome (DS), is the most common chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disability and is characterized by a variety of additional clinical findings. It occurs in approximately one in 8,000 births worldwide. In the U.S., DS accounts for about 500 live births annually, and more than 200,000 persons are living with the disorder. The original description of the syndrome, in 1866, has been attributed to John Langton Down, a physician from Cornwall
My philosophy on prescribing medication has always been that less is better. I always prefer to see patients treat themselves. For example, when I see someone who is overweight and who develops mild diabetes or hypertension, my preference is always to try to get him or her to lose weight rather than start on medication. One of the reasons for my approach to this is that medications can have side effects. Unfortunately, however, urging someone to lose weight or alter their diet or behavior often
Type 1 diabetes, once called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes, is usually seen in children and adolescents, but can rarely be seen in adults. Unlike Type 2 diabetes, where the pancreas still makes some insulin, in Type 1 the pancreas makes no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose, a simple sugar, to enter cells and produce energy. Glucose is the basic fuel that runs our bodies. It comes from the food we eat, and it is stored in the liver. For reasons not yet fully understood
It has often been said that no one talks more about death than the Irish. But death is something we all face. Death is one of the most important factors that give life meaning. There is biologic death and brain death. The concept of brain death, or the determination of death by neurologic criteria, was first proposed by a Harvard committee in 1968, and then adopted into the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) in 1981. Although the UDDA was widely accepted and endorsed by medical
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects about 3% of the U.S. population and about 125 million people worldwide. While not an autoimmune disease per se, the human immune system plays a large part in the disease process. The most common variant of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis, which accounts for more than 80 to 90% of cases. Plaque psoriasis is characterized by red, scaly patches of thickened skin that most commonly occur on extensor surfaces (typically the elbows and knees), but it can