Being involved in a trauma event means having an injury that requires prompt medical attention, which includes medical examination, testing, and treatment. Trauma can be caused by many types of injuries, whether intentional or unintentional, and may include an emotionally distressing experience or physical injury. Firearm injuries, motor vehicle accidents, and falls are among the most common types of trauma. Young children are more likely to be affected by drowning, while elderly patients are more likely to have ground-level falls (falls while sitting or standing). Trauma can be a frightening and overwhelming experience and can range from minor injuries to life-threatening conditions.

Major hospitals and university hospitals are more

Restaurants and retailers aren’t the only small businesses that have taken a severe financial blow from COVID-19. Physicians in small practices around the country have reported steep declines in revenue, drops so significant that some of them and their supporters have resorted to GoFundMe – ironically the platform best-known for helping patients pay their medical bills – to raise funds to help pay their overhead. Telemedicine has been of minimal financial help to small practices. Tenants have

Breast cancer risk-reducing medications may decrease the risk of primary breast cancer in some women aged 35 and older who are at increased risk of breast cancer. While there is no specific cutoff to define that increased risk, most studies define it as at least a 3% chance of developing it in five years. So how is that increased risk determined? The answer is a complex one. Obviously, family history is an important consideration, especially if there is a familial genetic mutation, for example

Anosmia (the inability to smell) and hyposmia (a decreased ability to smell) describe the range of olfactory dysfunction, or smell disorders. The sense of smell is a complex process that involves the nose and the brain. When air passes into the nose, odor molecules bind to the receptors of the olfactory nerves. These nerves are found in a specialized lining at the top of the nasal cavity called the olfactory epithelium. The stimulation of the olfactory receptors and the nerves cause them to

I am old enough to remember watching the original Star Trek series in the ‘60s (on a black and white TV because that’s all we had). In one episode, Captain Kirk, Spock, and Dr. “Bones” McCoy are stranded on a planet where they catch an infection that causes them to rapidly age. The planet is populated by children and teens who are immune and do not age. Dr. McCoy is able to formulate a serum from the blood of these children. The serum contains antibodies which cure the infection when the serum

Coffee and tea are among the most popular beverages worldwide and contain substantial amounts of caffeine, making caffeine the most widely consumed psychoactive agent. A variety of plants contain caffeine in their seeds, fruits, and leaves. Besides coffee and tea, these plants include cacao beans (an ingredient of chocolate), yerba matte leaves (used in herbal tea), and guarana berries (used in various beverages and supplements). Caffeine can be synthesized and is added to foods and beverages

The carotid arteries are vital blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain, face, and neck. At about the level of the mid neck, the common carotid artery splits into the internal and external carotid arteries. There is a small bulge at the level of this bifurcation. It is known as the carotid sinus or bulb. The carotid sinus contains vital pressure sensors, called baroreceptors, that help regulate blood pressure. The internal carotid arteries supply blood to the brain and the

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