Epistaxis, commonly called a nosebleed, is a frequently encountered condition that is responsible for about one in 200 emergency department visits here in the U.S. It has an estimated lifetime prevalence of 60%, and about 6% of those who have nosebleeds seek treatment. Management is usually straightforward but can be complicated by several factors, primarily the use of anticoagulant medication.
In most cases, bleeding starts spontaneously without any obvious precipitant. The underlying causes of and risk factors for epistaxis may be classified into local (e.g., lack of humidification, trauma, intranasal medication application, infection, inflammation, and tumors), systemic (e.g., blood diseases, leukemia, hypertension, and congestive